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007 – Performance-Based contracting of urban transport operation Services: Evidence from Porto’s Light-Rail

Mário Coutinho dos Santos, João M. Pinto, Pedro Verga Matos
Case Studies on Transport Policy, 101193.

This paper develops a bonus/malus incentive model for contracting out the provision of urban railroad operation services, and testing parts of its performance using Monte Carlo methods. We also provide evidence on the performance measures of Metro do Porto’s (MdP) light-rail network operation, during the 2010–2016 term of a bonus/malus-based contract, incorporating some features of our model. Results document that the implementation of a performance-based contract with an embedded incentive bonus/malus mechanism may contribute to promoting ridership patronage, increasing the average ride, and ultimately promoting the overall economic operating efficiency of the system. The comparative operating performance analysis of MdP versus Metropolitano de Lisboa, a vertically integrated, governmentally-owned metro network, shows that MdP exhibits higher revenue, cost, and operating efficiency in the 2010–2016 period, and that the bonus/malus mechanism induces the private sub-concessionaire to respond more efficiently to changes in demand.

006 – The Role of Brand Experience and Brand Love in Creating Word-of-Mouth in Food Retail

Adriana Araújo Ana Araújo, Jana Turčinkova, José Magano
European Review of Business Economics III(1): 27-42.

Brand love is associated with consumer behavior that affects organizational performance. This article examines the relationship between brand experience and brand love and between brand love and positive word-of-mouth among Portuguese consumers in the context of the international food retail chain LIDL. Specifically, it analyzes how brand experience contributes to consumers’ love for the LIDL brand and how this affects positive word-of-mouth. First, a narrative review of the literature on brand experience, brand love, and positive word-of-mouth is presented, followed by a quantitative study based on a sample of 1,049 Portuguese LIDL customers. Data were processed using descriptive and inferential statistics, including correlations, structural equation modeling and tests of differences. The results show significant positive associations between brand experience and brand love, and positive word-of-mouth, as well as significant differences in gender, generation, and occupational groups. However, the mediating role of brand love between brand experience and word-of-mouth is not significant. With a view to boosting positive word-of-mouth, marketers should manage the experience consumers have in-store and enhance both hedonic and utilitarian values.

005 – The Risk Structure of Portuguese Tourism Industry Subsectors: A PLS-SEM Approach

Rui Costa, António C. Moreira, Jorge Mota, Adriana F. Chim-Miki
European Review of Business Economics, III(1): 65-83.

This paper examines risk factors that affect the Portuguese tourism industry subsectors, namely, travel agencies and tour operators, leisure and recreation activities, and tourism events firms. Additionally, it also assesses the effect of these risks on strategic and operational responses in the tourism subsectors mediated by a mitigation dimension. In terms of methodology, we used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on data collected from 416 questionnaires distributed across the three tourism subsectors complemented by a Multigroup Analysis (MGA) via partial least squares structural equations modeling (PLS-SEM). The exploratory factor analysis confirmed distinct risk categories, including organizational, environmental, competitive, economic, political, infrastructure-related, circumstantial, business deficiencies, and specific (local) risks. Results documented the different risk impacts of risks on strategic and operational responses for tourism subsectors. While mitigation efforts do not significantly differ in their overall effects across subsectors, differences emerge in their direct effects. Concerning practical implications, this research provides insights for stakeholders in the tourism industry, supporting them with the knowledge to proactively understand, anticipate, and manage any risks in their operations, essential for boosting the resilience and competitive edge of the tourism subsectors in a global environment shrouded by uncertainty.

004 – Portuguese Youth Saving Determinants and Financial Literacy

Ana Lúcia Leitão, Filipa Fitas, Mónica Silva, Tiago Ricardo, Margarida Abreu
European Review of Business Economics, III(1): 103-116.

This study aims to characterise the saving behaviour of Portuguese people, by analysing factors that influence financial decisions, such as the socio-economic and behavioural variables that determine saving and the impact of financial literacy on their willingness to save. We conclude that individuals with 31 or more years of age, with high levels of education, higher income, average financial knowledge and who get specialized information show a higher probability of saving. In terms of behaviour, those who consider the cost before making financial decisions and underconfident individuals, regardless of their risk appetite or aversion, also have a greater propensity to save. In contrast, for individuals in the 18 to 30 age range, everything else constant, there are no significant differences in youth attitudes toward saving. Young women tend to be more likely to save than young men. The estimated models also support the relevance of schooling to explain saving in this age group. The source of information on which the financial decision is based does not seem to be important to young people, but under- and overconfidence does have a marginal impact. Furthermore, low-income levels are a common obstacle to saving, both for young people and the general population.

003 – Brand Love, Attitude, and Environmental Cause Knowledge: Sustainable Blue Jeans Consumer Behavior

José Magano, Tiago Brandão, Catarina Delgado, Vera Vale
Sustainability, 16, 1840.

A blue jeans brand committed to the environmental cause could position itself as unique and socially responsible and attract environmentally driven consumers. This research study examines the relationship between brand love and consumers’ environmental cause knowledge and their willingness to recommend and pay a premium for sustainable blue jeans. To this end, this cross- sectional study comprises a snowball convenience sample of 978 Portuguese respondents, whose data were collected from December 2022 to January 2023. Positive associations between self-expression, brand love, loyalty, environmental cause knowledge, positive word-of-mouth, and willingness to pay a premium for sustainable blue jeans stand out.

There are differences in the willingness to pay a premium among generations, education levels, and consumers who are aware of sustainable line extensions and those who are not. The results may be helpful for brands, suggesting their communication should focus on creating increased proximity to consumers by enhancing their values and seeking to link their brands to intrinsic benefits and environmental stakes. This is the first study to incorporate knowledge of the environmental cause into a model linking brand love, brand loyalty, positive word-of-mouth, and willingness to pay a premium for sustainable blue jeans.

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